The Upper School Experience


Holy Child is an extraordinary school--academically, spiritually and physically.

We offer an individualized and innovative curriculum, including advanced placement classes in all the disciplines, expansive offerings in the visual and performing arts, a competitive athletic program, and multiple opportunities for leadership, is designed to encourage our students to challenge their minds, explore their passions, and push themselves outside their comfort zone so they grow personally, spiritually and socially.

One of the most important features of a Holy Child education is the experiential learning we provide our upper school students. Holy Child offers students a variety of opportunities to study, serve and explore areas around world with opportunities to study abroad, and educational trips to Cuba, South America, Europe and Asia that encourage girls to become global, creative thinkers. Trips to corporations, the opera, cultural clubs, exhibits, recycling centers for environmental science and more enable our students to learn from real-life experiences, and become confident leaders within the classroom and beyond.

The dedication of our faculty to their students and the students’ love for their school is exceptional. Holy Child upper school students work diligently, and are supported by individual attention from faculty and administration. We work collaboratively with our students and families to ensure that each student is known and valued, and her academic and individual goals are supported.

Academic rigor, personal attention, and opportunities to excel outside the classroom are hallmarks of the Upper School at Holy Child. Students are encouraged to discover their passions and are supported to pursue those interests in order to develop their own unique potential.

Students receive careful guidance regarding course selection and graduation requirements, as well as with the college admissions process. Holy Child students are encouraged to take the most rigorous program in which they will be successful. Schedules are tailored and designed to accommodate individual student strengths.

It is rare that two students in the Upper School have the same schedule.


Academic Departments and Courses

English

English 9: World Literature

The ninth grade English course, a survey of world literature, introduces students to a variety of literary works and genres from across the planet and throughout history, all of which not only serve as examples of excellent writing but also allow students to think critically about how each protagonist moves from childhood or adolescence to adulthood, considering those ideas, persons, or cultures that challenge them physically, emotionally, or psychologically. Through the study of these literatures and use of supplementary materials (both print and electronic), students improve their writing, practice literary analysis, extend their grasp of grammar, build vocabulary, and gain confidence in public speaking. Students are expected to complete a number of written assignments connected to their reading. Students study grammar in context in their writing, reviewing specific points of grammar as needed. The major texts studied may include Things Fall Apart, The Kite Runner, and The Merchant of Venice.

English 10: British Literature

This course is an introduction to the important authors and movements in British literature, but with added readings that explore the far-reaching impact of Britain’s vast colonial system. We will begin the year with a foundational text for all of British literature, Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, and examine the work for its themes of gender and religion. From there, we will study The Tempest, one of Shakespeare’s works that explores questions of racial identity and equity. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre will bring together our study of religion, gender, and racial identities, setting us up for the post-colonial works, Wide Sargasso Sea and Annie John. These course texts will develop and challenge our idea of British literature, providing insight into life during and after colonial rule, reflecting on the consequences of accommodating oneself to a foreign culture. A study of poetry will be interspersed throughout the year, as we will examine major forms and movements, from sonnets and Romantic poetry to free verse. To help us become better readers and writers, we will engage actively with this literature on a regular basis through a range of writing-to-learn techniques as well as through the drafting and revision of formal and informal pieces. Finally, we will select unfamiliar words from the readings to develop our vocabulary and study grammatical concepts, such as phrases and clauses that will enrich our writing on the sentence level.

English 11

The eleventh grade course centers its focus on the concepts of the American dream and the evolution of American Literature and literary movements. This, in conjunction with the students’ American History course, strengthens their exploration of ideas such as the definition of success, the movement towards greed, the woman’s role in society, the public and private self, the pluralistic society, and American trends in music, art, and culture. The reading syllabus may include works such as The Scarlet Letter, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Great Gatsby, and The Things They Carried. Students continue to write critically and argumentatively, as well as debate and present information to the class as part of their daily work. In the final weeks of the course, students will work to brainstorm topics, write, and revise the personal essay for their Common Application.

AP English Language and Composition

AP English Language and Composition is a course designed to engage students in the examination of a writer's purpose in accordance with the writer's use of rhetoric. Through their reading and writing, students are made aware of the interactions among a writer's purposes, audience expectations, and subjects. Students write in a variety of modes, thereby developing a sense of personal style and an ability to analyze and articulate how the resources of language operate in any given text. The rhetoric of visual media, such as photographs, films, and advertisements, is also studied. The course will emphasize the critical reading of various prose styles and require students to prepare a variety of essays, including narration, description, definition, synthesis, and argument/persuasion. They will learn how to link technique and meaning into well-organized, supported, logical responses to complex texts, all of which are written by influential Americans. In May, all students will sit for the AP English Language and Composition exam. In the final weeks of school, students will work to prepare their Common Application personal essay.

English 12

In this course students will read a range of novels and plays written by women or which feature women characters or both. In many of these works, women occupy their traditional roles as daughters, girlfriends, mothers, or wives, but in others they are playing non-traditional roles, and even as daughters, girlfriends, mothers, or wives these heroines are notable mostly for how they depart from the stereotype. The reading syllabus may include texts such as Twelfth Night, The Bluest Eye, Frankenstein, and A Streetcar Named Desire. The writing curriculum of this course will focus on the thesis-driven essay, which seeks to persuade a knowledgeable reader of the essay writer’s theory about a text.

AP English Literature and Composition

This course is the equivalent of a college freshman English course with a focus on literary analysis. Through reading a series of novels and plays appropriate for a college level class, AP English Literature and Composition students will develop their abilities to read analytically and to write critically about literature. The writing curriculum will focus on the thesis-driven essay, which seeks to persuade a knowledgeable reader of the essay writer’s theory about a text. AP English Lit students will also have the opportunity to practice the kinds of reading and writing required on the Advanced Placement English Literature And Composition Exam, which they will take in May.

English Electives

Creative Writing

This elective allows students to explore three expressive modes of writing: the poem, the short story, and the creative nonfiction essay. Each unit will begin with immersion in a particular genre with students reading works of writers from Annie Dillard to David Sedaris and Elizabeth Bishop. Students will read not primarily as readers, but as writers, with a keen eye for conventions, form, literary devices, and authorial choice. To complete their mastery of the genre, students will write their own pieces, building editorial skills – and community – as they read and respond to each other’s writing. We will also have the chance to read authors writing about the art and craft of writing itself and to touch on some newer genres such as the six-word memoir. The course will culminate with each student submitting a portfolio of her own work.

History and Social Sciences

World History I

The World History I course is designed to help students develop a greater understanding of historical forces that have shaped our planet. The course focuses on the evolution of global processes, the interaction of societies, the nature of changes and continuity in understanding global forces and their causes and consequences. The study of world history begins with the development of early humans, the Neolithic Revolution and the beginnings of civilization in Mesopotamia, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Next, the classical civilizations are examined, and the year ends with the study of the post-classical period leading up to the modern era. Students will compare major societies and explore the principles of physical and cultural geography.

World History II

This course will begin with the study of the historical development of people, places, and patterns of life from 1500 to the present, ranging from the Renaissance in Europe, to Reformation, the Enlightenment, Industrialization, Nationalism and Imperialism. Students will investigate causes for the French Revolution, the impact of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, global industrial expansion and the effect on labor. Students will understand the causes and consequences of the great military and economic events of the past century, and will examine the push and pull factors of global migrations. Students will analyze both primary and secondary documents, maps, pictures, stories, diagrams, charts, chronological skills, inquire/research skills and technology skills to write historical, critical-thinking essays.

World History II Advanced

This Tenth Grade honors course considers the geography, global processes, social interactions, international frameworks, and cross-cultural comparisons necessary for an understanding of World History during the time period of 1400 A.D. to the present. World History II Advanced offer an in-depth examination of modern politics, economics, philosophy, technology, and society. Interpretative and analytical skills will be emphasized. Students will analyze both primary and secondary documents, maps, pictures, stories, diagrams, charts, chronological skills, inquire/research skills and technology skills to write historical, critical-thinking essays.

United States History

This course traces the development of the United States from the age of exploration to modern times. It emphasizes such topics as the American Revolution and the Constitution, the development of American political institutions, Jacksonian Democracy, the institution of slavery, the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Industrial Revolution, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II and the Cold War. Emphasis is placed on written and oral expression, and on analysis of written documents. Tests, essays, multimedia presentations, individual and cooperative group projects and papers are required.

AP United States History

This is a college level survey course for students of United States History who have exceptional aptitude for and an interest in the subject. The class traces the development of the United States from the Age of Exploration to the present. This course requires a serious commitment from its students because of its fast pace and heavy work load. Students should have superior reading comprehension skills and strong writing skills, and must be familiar with the historical method; i.e. be able to assess the relevance and importance of historical materials. Students will be responsible for outside research and for written and oral reports. All students enrolled in the course are required to take the Advanced Placement examination in May. Students may be encouraged to take the History SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

Economics

This course provides students with the fluency necessary to understand and interpret economic events occurring in a globally interdependent world. Concepts will include supply and demand, profit and loss, opportunity cost, financial markets and institutions, interest rates, inflation, unemployment, international trade and currency, and the purpose and function of stock and capital. Students will use a textbook as well as newspapers including The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. Students will learn hands on by managing virtual investment portfolios and by taking field trips to financial institutions. Personal financial skills will also be taught.

AP U. S. Government and Politics

The AP U.S. Government and Politics introduces students to key political ideas, institutions, policies, interactions, roles and behaviors that characterize the political culture of the United States. The course examines politically significant concepts and themes, through which students learn to apply disciplinary reasoning, assess cause and consequences of political events, and interpret data to develop evidence base-based arguments.

History and Social Sciences Electives

International Relations

This first trimester course will focus on the issues of two or three specific nations and how they interact with other nations around the globe. Students will learn about the United Nations (U.N.) and engage in an authentic simulation of the U.N. system, learning skills of debate, compromise, conflict resolution and negotiation. Model U.N. participation is mandatory.

Mathematics and Computer Science

Algebra I

This course includes the structure and operations of real numbers, solving linear equations and inequalities, verbal problems, absolute value equations, operations with monomials, polynomials and rational expressions, systems of linear equations, radicals, quadratic functions, and introduction to functions, matrices and probability. Geometry Prerequisite: Algebra I or placement testing This course covers the concepts of plane geometry. It includes the study of congruent and similar triangles, polygons, circles, area, coordinate geometry, Pythagorean Theorem, right triangle trigonometry, surface area and volume. It introduces formal proof, including logic proofs, and seeks to develop analytical and logical thinking.

Geometry A

This course presents a rigorous study of Euclidean geometry including congruent and similar polygons, circles, area, coordinate geometry, Pythagorean Theorem, and locus. It includes using formulas for surface area and volume. Writing formal, original proofs in both logic and geometry is stressed. It reinforces algebra skills acquired in Algebra I.

Algebra II/Introduction to Trigonometry

Algebra II is a course designed to help students develop strong quantitative reasoning skills as well as further develop their algebra skills. Topics covered include basic concepts of algebra, equations, inequalities, absolute value, products and factoring polynomials, rational expressions, quadratic equations, irrational and complex numbers, variation, exponential and logarithmic functions, right triangle trigonometry, and sequences and series. This course may not be offered every year.

Algebra II/Trigonometry

This course reinforces the fundamentals of algebra taught in Algebra I. It includes linear and quadratic relations and functions, systems of linear and quadratic equations and inequalities, manipulating rational and irrational expressions, complex numbers, exponents, logarithms, introduction to trigonometry, and applications using verbal problems.

Algebra II/Trigonometry A

This course is an in-depth study of algebra and trigonometry designed for the mathematically able student. It uses all of the topics in Algebra I and expands on them to include the quadratic formula, complex numbers, higher degree polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, operations with matrices, sequence and series, verbal problems, exponential growth and decay, and trigonometry.

Advanced Concepts in Mathematics

This course limited to seniors and is designed to prepare them for a freshman year college math course. This class covers various topics in algebra, geometry, measurement, number systems, set theory, number theory, probability, statistics and math in the real world. Problem solving is highlighted throughout the curriculum. Students will explore both the practical and conceptual aspects of various mathematical topics.

Pre-Calculus

This course includes trigonometry, and elementary functions with an emphasis on applications using the graphing calculator. Topics of study include polynomial functions, higher degree polynomial equations, rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, conic sections, complex numbers, trigonometry, and polar coordinates.

Pre-Calculus A

This course is designed to prepare students for either AP Calculus or a first year college calculus course. Topics include a further look at logarithms and trigonometry, applications using polar coordinates, linear, polynomial, exponential, and rational functions, sequence and series, limits, definition of derivative, rules for taking derivatives, and verbal max/min problems using the graphing calculator. *Current teacher and/or department chair approval required.

Calculus

This course is an introduction to topics in calculus including limits, derivative rules, max/min. problems, related rates, Riemann sums, rules of integration, area and volume.

AP Calculus AB

This college-level course meets the AP Calculus AB course curriculum standards set by the College Board. Students study limits, continuity, derivatives, applications involving derivatives, integrals and the fundamental theorem of calculus, advanced techniques of integration, differential equations, applications of the definite integral, and limits with indeterminate forms and L'Hopital's Rule. Students will explore each major concept in 4 ways: graphically, symbolically, verbally, and numerically. The course culminates with the AP Calculus AB exam in May.

AP Calculus BC

This college-level course meets the AP Calculus BC course curriculum standards set by the College Board. Students study all AB Calculus topics and the following additional BC only topics: derivatives and integrals of parametric functions, slope of a polar curve, integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, arc length and perimeter, improper integrals, motion along a planar curve, Euler's method, logistic growth, and sequences and series. Students will explore each major concept in 4 ways: graphically, symbolically, verbally, and numerically. The course culminates with the AP Calculus BC exam in May.

Information Technology Electives

Introduction to Computer Science

Students will use the CodeHS.com curriculum to learn the basics of computer science in JavaScript, beginning with Karel the Dog and ultimately building their own game. The CodeHS introduction to computer science curriculum teaches the foundations of computer science and basic programming. Once students complete the course, they will have learned material equivalent to a semester college introductory course in computer science and be able to program in JavaScript.

AP Computer Science Principles

Students will use the CodeHS.com curriculum to gain a broad-based understanding of computer science and equip them to successfully pass the AP Computer Science Principles Exam at the end of the school year. AP Computer Science Principles introduces students to the foundational concepts of computer science and explores the impact computing and technology have on our society. The course goes beyond simply programming and provides a unique focus on creative problem solving, collaboration and real-world applications. Student projects will include: building a website, writing a program to draw a digital image, creating a web comic, developing an encryption algorithm and a final project that allows students to apply the different concepts covered in the course.

Religious Studies

Introduction to the Bible

In this yearlong course, students study the Bible in a literary, historical and spiritual context, focusing on the morality that stems from it. During the first half of the year, students study the formation of the Bible, including the processes of authorship and inspiration, as well as various methods of criticism and interpretation. Students read and explore much of the Hebrew Scriptures, focusing on key themes and messages. During the second half of the year, students examine the New Testament and learn about the life and teachings of Jesus Christ and its part in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Social Justice

In this course students acquire a robust understanding of the concept of social justice and learn that promoting justice is fundamental to the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the Catholic faith. Students study the biblical and theological roots of social justice, as well as the tenets of Catholic Social Teaching (CST). The girls look at how other Christian traditions, secular organizations, and prophetic individuals work to achieve goals similar to those identified as priorities by CST. Students are also introduced to a range of current justice issues and are asked to form their own opinions and reflect on how to engender positive social change. The course cultivates interdisciplinary skills essential for helping to eliminate injustice, such as prayer, public speaking, active listening, research and analysis, community organizing, and storytelling through the arts. To this end, students are asked to utilize books, articles, documentary films, podcasts, oral histories, sermons, songs, photographs, and poems. The goal of this course is to enhance students' awareness of the needs of the world and foster a personal faith that calls them to action.

Christian Theology and World Religions

The first trimester of this course provides students with a foundation in Christian theology by exploring central questions of faith such as: Why is there suffering in the world? How does God communicate with us? How does Jesus save? What will happen in the end times? What is the role of the Church? And how ought we live? Through studying theodicy, Christology, soteriology, ecclesiology, and eschatology, students are introduced to some of the most renowned and provocative theologians and also learn about the different traditions within the Christian faith. The second trimester is structured around a comparative study of the beliefs and practices of four other great world religions: Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism. Students will have guest speakers and will examine sources of revelation, questions about afterlife, and alternative worldviews. The third trimester focuses on religious discrimination and the role of interreligious dialogue in contemporary social issues. Students read Victor Frankl’s Man’s Search for Meaning and engage in a studentdirected ecumenical service-learning project.

Ethics

Ethics is a rigorous, trimester-long Religious Studies course, which introduces students to variety of classic ethical theories (Cultural Relativism, Social Contract Theory, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and Kantian Ethics) and requires them to apply these theories to contemporary dilemmas. The purpose of the course is to investigate questions such as the following: What is the relationship between ethics, morality, law, religion, and etiquette? What are the sources of human morality? How do we find meaning in our life? What are some basic ethical theories? How can these theories be applied to certain moral dilemmas? How do our own ethics influence the life we live? In addition, this course makes use of films, such as Dead Man Walking and The Shawshank Redemption, to help explain the role of ethics in situations of social justice. Students also explore Victor Frankl's theory of Logotherapy as a way to find meaning and purpose in life.

Faith and the Modern World

Faith in the Modern World is a capstone course that serves as both academic and spiritual preparation for the challenges that often come with completing high school and transitioning to the realm of college and beyond. With Rabbi Dan Wolk, Holy Child's most senior faculty member, as a regular guest teacher, this course focuses on faith-related topics such as: creation, relationships, the role of women, overcoming obstacles, suffering, death/dying, fear of progress, and moving forward. We investigate essential questions for each of these topics so students build a deeper understanding of existential questions like: Who am I? What do I believe? What is my purpose? The course culminates with a student-directed experiential final assignment called The Connelly Project, which will be based in either theology or justice.

Science

Biology

This course introduces students to the excitement of biology and allows them to explore the complexities of living systems. Using a molecular approach, topics such as organic compounds, cell structure and function, enzyme activity, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, cell division, classical and modern genetics, protein synthesis, DNA technology, evolution and ecology are covered. The molecular approach to this course will prepare students for further scientific study, as well as enable them to make informed decisions about the ever-growing role of biotechnology in our lives. Laboratory work is an essential part of this course. Its inquiry-based approach is designed to develop critical thinking skills and powers of observation.

Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that it can undergo. This course introduces students to the major concepts in chemistry and emphasizes its importance in our everyday lives. Topics include measurement and conversions; modern atomic theory; the periodic table; bonding; principles of chemical reactions; moles; states of matter; gases and gas laws; solutions; acids and bases; redox reactions; organic chemistry; and nuclear chemistry. Lab work is an integral part of the course and includes formal lab reports.

Chemistry A

It is similar to Chemistry, but moves at a faster pace and topics are covered in more depth. These topics include measurement and conversions; modern atomic theory; the periodic table; bonding; principles of chemical reactions; moles and stoichiometry (including limiting reactants); states of matter; gases and gas laws; solutions; thermochemistry; reaction rates; chemical equilibrium; acids and bases; redox reactions; organic chemistry; and nuclear chemistry. Lab work, with formal writeups, will correspond with material covered in class.

Physics I

This course is a rigorous introduction to classical Newtonian physics and examines the mechanics of the physical world. Students will study the phenomena and theories associated with the following topics: matter and energy; forces and motion; wave behavior; sound; light and optics; electricity (both static and circuits). Lab work, with its formal write-ups, will correspond with material covered in class.

Physics I A

This course is similar to Physics but moves at a faster pace and more topics are covered. The scope of the course includes linear motion, forces, energy, rotational motion, oscillations, thermodynamics, wave behavior, electric forces and fields, electricity, magnetism; optics, and modern physics. Lab work, with its formal write-ups, will correspond with material covered in class.

AP Biology

AP Biology is a college-level class designed for in-depth investigation of living systems. The course design allows for significant exploration of the topic by the student both in the classroom and in laboratory situations. Topics of study range from biochemical processes to molecular genetics and evolutionary theory. The student soon realizes that in-depth study often raises more perplexing questions than are answered. Laboratory investigations include enzyme activity, DNA fingerprinting and bacterial transformation. This course meets in double periods, and requires a large time commitment. Students are required to take the AP exam in May.

AP Chemistry

The AP Chemistry course provides students with a college-level foundation to support future advanced course work in chemistry. Students cultivate their understanding of chemistry through inquiry-based investigations, as they explore topics such as: atomic structure, intermolecular forces and bonding, chemical reactions, kinetics, thermodynamics, and equilibrium. Students are required to take the AP exam in May.

AP Physics C: Mechanics

The course is equivalent to a one-semester, calculus-based college-level physics course, especially appropriate for students planning to specialize or major in physical science or engineering. The course explores topics such as kinematics; Newton’s laws of motion; work, energy and power; systems of particles and linear momentum; circular motion and rotation; and oscillations and gravitation. Introductory differential and integral calculus is used throughout the course. This course meets in double periods and requires a large time commitment. Students are required to take the AP exam in May.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

This course is an in-depth study of the structure and function of the human body. Students first master the language of anatomy: body planes, directions, regions, cavities, and tissue types. An in-depth exploration of organ systems follows, including the digestive, skeletal, muscular, integumentary, respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and lymphatic systems. In addition to the use of models and computer simulations, dissections of the rat, dogfish, fetal pig, cow femur, sheep brain, goat heart, and cow eye enhance students' appreciation of the miraculous workings of the body. Other activities supplement our understanding of body functions, such as learning to measure blood pressure, listening to heart sounds with a stethoscope, eliciting reflexes, testing for visual acuity, color blindness, and astigmatisms, and studying bone fractures and soft tissue injuries through the examination of X-rays and MRIs. Note: While students are encouraged to take part in dissections, participation in them is not a requirement.

Environmental Science

This course is an in-depth study of major ecological concepts and environmental problems that affect the world we live in. The course begins with a look at our Earth as a system, focusing on basic ecological concepts: ecosystems, geology, and resources. Students will then apply those concepts to investigate current environmental issues, such as sustainability, energy, the rise of organic food, and wildlife conservation. Major focuses of the course will be both global and local biodiversity, an in-depth study of the Hudson River, an analysis of New York City through the eyes of an urban ecologist, and environmental politics. Research writing and laboratory investigations, including river analysis, recording animal behavior, soil testing, and determining forest health will be important components of the course.

Classical and Modern Languages

FRENCH

French I

This course develops the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, as well as introducing students to the culture of French-speaking countries. It is designed for students with little or no experience with the French language. As much as possible, classes are conducted in French. The student is introduced to elementary conversation, pronunciation and vocabulary, as well as basic grammatical structures.

French II

The second year course is a continuation of French I, developing the skills of listening and speaking, while promoting reading and writing skills more prominently. The culture of French-speaking countries is studied in greater depth. As much as possible, classes are conducted in French. New tenses and grammatical structures are introduced, as well as more detailed vocabulary and idiomatic expressions.

French III

This course is designed to review skills learned in French I and French II and study new grammatical structures including the subjunctive mood and compound tenses. Students are required to apply and manipulate language in more depth. There is greater emphasis on composition, oral ability and expanding vocabulary. Selected literary excerpts provide additional practice and stimulus for discussion.

French IV

French IV aims to perfect the student’s mastery of French skills through an extensive review emphasizing the application of grammar. Readings include short stories by well-known French authors. Oral fluency is attained through in-class discussion of literature, current events and the construction of stories based on a sequence of pictures. Newspaper and magazine articles and short literary passages aid with students’ comprehension of the written language. Compositions on a variety of subjects, incorporating the key elements studied, are submitted regularly. This class is conducted exclusively in French. Students may be encouraged to take the French SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

Composition et Conversation

This course is designed to be an alternative to AP French Language. The class includes discussion of themes of interest to young people, as well as current events, based upon readings from newspaper and magazine articles, and listening to news on French television as well as podcasts. French culture, poetry, literature, and dramatists, painters and musicians, as well as French cinema, are studied. One major piece of literature will be read. The class is conducted exclusively in French. Students may be encouraged to take the French SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

AP French Language and Culture

This is a college level course. The class is conducted exclusively in French. There will be a systematic review of grammar along with regular writing assignments. The students will read a complete work of literature as well as a number of shorter works and magazine articles. Audio materials will be used to prepare students for the AP exam. The student’s oral skills will be developed through daily discussions of topics and stories. Students may be encouraged to take the French SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.


LATIN AND GREEK

Latin I

Latin I is an introductory course geared toward achieving reading ability in the language. Selected readings from the textbook and from outside sources concentrate on Roman mythology, lifestyle and culture and are designed to develop an understanding of the influence of these on the language. The basic grammar, learned as a tool for translating Latin, helps the student in her understanding of English grammar. The study of word derivation from Latin increases the student’s knowledge of English vocabulary.

Latin II

Latin II is a continuation of the foundation studies in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and style begun in Latin I. Roman mythology and history (which provide background material for topics covered in other literature, language and history courses) are studied. By the third trimester the students are beginning to translate Roman authors. Latin III Prerequisite: Latin II or placement testing The Latin III curriculum provides students with an overview of Latin authors. The students translate and analyze selections from Cicero’s letters, orations and philosophica, Pliny’s letters, and Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Through exposure to the works of these authors, the student gains insight into the political, social and economic situation of the times.

Latin IV

Now that the student has mastered most grammatical structures and possesses a strong vocabulary, she is able to proceed to Latin IV. Fourth year Latin is primarily devoted to reading major portions of Virgil’s Aeneid. By doing research projects, including an essay presenting a feminist critique of Virgil’s treatment of women, primarily Dido, in the Aeneid. Attention is also given to the art, architecture, politics of the time as well as Virgil’s influence on English literature.

Latin V

This class is conducted on a tutorial basis with two to three meetings a week. The decline and fall of the Roman Republic is studied with intensive readings of Cicero and Sallust in Latin. The third trimester is flexible, with advanced readings of the Latin poets or Latin Stoic philosophy.

Introduction to Classical Greek

This class is conducted on a tutorial basis with two to three meetings a week. Introduction to Greek employs an excellent text, Athenaze, which enables the student to read fairly complex and interesting stories from the first days of the class. By the third trimester, the student is in a position to read some selections from the original text of the Odyssey.


SPANISH

Spanish I

This course is designed for students who have had little or no experience in Spanish. Spanish I lays the foundation for the four basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The student is introduced to elementary conversation, pronunciation and vocabulary, as well as basic grammar structures. The groundwork is also laid for a study of Hispanic culture.

Spanish II

This course continues to build on the foundation laid in Spanish I. Basic points of grammar are refined and new points are introduced. Increased emphasis is placed on conversation and comprehension as the class is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. New grammatical topics include the imperfect, future and conditional, as well as a review of the perfect tense.

Spanish III

Spanish III is designed to review and reinforce the skills learned in Spanish I and Spanish II. New topics include compound tenses, commands, the present and imperfect subjunctive, and their uses. There is greater emphasis on composition, oral ability and expanding vocabulary. Throughout the year selected literary excerpts provide additional practice and stimulus for discussion.

Spanish IV

Spanish IV aims to perfect the student’s mastery of Spanish through an extensive grammar review emphasizing its usage in context. Readings include short stories by well-known Spanish and Latin American authors. Oral fluency is attained through class discussion of literature, current events and constructing stories based on a sequence of pictures. The class is conducted entirely in Spanish. Newspaper and magazine articles and short literary passages aid students’ comprehension of the written language. Students may be encouraged to take the Spanish SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

Conversación y Composición

This course is designed to be an alternative to the AP Spanish Language and Culture course. The class includes discussion of themes of interest to young people, as well as current events, based upon readings from newspaper and magazine articles, and listening to news on Spanish television as well as podcasts. Spanish and Latin American poetry, literature, dramatists, painters, musicians and cinema are studied.

AP Spanish Language and Culture

AP Spanish is a college level course, which prepares students to take the College Board Advanced Placement examination. This course, which is taught entirely in Spanish, includes an extensive grammar review, study of idiomatic Spanish and an exploration of culture in both contemporary and historical contexts. Readings include an anthology of short stories by contemporary Spanish and Latin American authors, which are analyzed and discussed in class. The students further develop awareness and appreciation of products, both tangible and intangible; practices; and perspectives. Students complete essays and directed oral responses on a weekly basis. Students may be encouraged to take the Spanish SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

AP Spanish Literature and Culture

The AP Spanish Literature and Culture Course is an introductory course to formal study of most representative Peninsular Spanish, Latin American, and U.S Hispanic literature written in Spanish. The course is conducted entirely in Spanish, and students are required to speak only in Spanish in order to strengthen their three modes of communication (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) at a more advanced language level. Students are provided full texts of each literary work and additional readings in Spanish. Students are taught the techniques of literary analysis (essays, prose, poetry, and drama), works and literary trends, as well as literary theory, and criticism. In particular students are encouraged and expected to develop critical thinking through literary analysis, textual and text analysis (short answers and essays), art comparison, thematic comparisons on the required reading list and non required readings in class discussions, essays, oral presentations, and listening comprehension.


MANDARIN

Mandarin I

This is an introductory course designed for students with little or no previous experience in Mandarin. The course will focus on developing the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Chinese geography, history, and culture will also be discussed. Students learn Pinyin pronunciation tool and tones, character writing, elementary conversation, as well as basic grammar structures in Chinese.

Mandarin II

This course continues to develop all the skills learned in Mandarin I. It will emphasize on practicing Pinyin and tones pronunciation, writing Chinese characters of more strokes, and better fluency in conversation. Grammar structures will focus on more advanced sentence patterns. Chinese geography, history, and culture will be discussed.

Mandarin III

This course will strengthen listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in the Chinese language. Students will increase their vocabulary and bolster their knowledge of grammatical structures. Emphasis will be on longer sentence structure, real-life conversation and reading comprehension. Selected poems and idioms will be studied in order to introduce Chinese literature and literacy into the classroom. Chinese geography, history, and culture will also be discussed.

Mandarin IV

This course is designed to further develop oral and reading skills to communicate in a Chinese speaking environment. Students will increase vocabulary and extend grammatical structures. Throughout the year, there will be a systematic review of grammar and vocabulary along with regular writing assignments. The emphasis will be on real-life conversation and literature. The class will be conducted mostly in Mandarin.

Mandarin V

This course is designed to further develop oral and reading skills to communicate in a Chinese speaking environment. Students will increase vocabulary and extend grammatical structures. Throughout the year, there will be a systematic review of grammar and vocabulary along with regular writing assignments. The emphasis will be on real-life conversation and literature. The class will be conducted almost exclusively in Mandarin. Students may be encouraged to take the Mandarin SAT Subject Test concurrently or upon completion of this course.

AP Chinese Language and Culture

This course is designed to be comparable to fourth semester (or equivalent) college/university courses in Mandarin Chinese. These courses, which deepen students’ immersion into the language and culture of the Chinese-speaking world, typically represent the point at which students complete approximately 250 hours of college-level classroom instruction. Developing students’ awareness and appreciation of the elements of the culture of Chinese-speaking people is a pervasive theme throughout course. The course engages students in an exploration of both contemporary and historical Chinese culture. Because the course interweaves language and culture learning, this exploration occurs in Chinese.